A Little Cookie History
(This information originally posted here.
Check out this site, seriously.)
Ruth Wakefield invented Chocolate Chip Cookies. Ruth Graves Wakefield
graduated from the Framingham State Normal School Department of
Household Arts in 1924. She worked as a dietitian and lectured on
food, until, together with her husband she bought a tourist lodge
named the Toll House Inn.
Ruth Wakefield prepared the recipes for the meals served to the guests
at the Inn and gained local notoriety for her deserts. One of her
favorite recipes was for Butter Drop Do cookies. The recipe called for
the use of baker's chocolate and one day Ruth found herself without
the needed ingredient. She substituted a semi-sweet chocolate bar cut
up into bits. However, unlike the baker's chocolate the chopped up
chocolate bar did not melt completely, the small pieces only softened.
As it so happened the chocolate bar had been a gift from Andrew Nestle
of the Nestle Chocolate Company. As the Toll House chocolate chip
cookie recipe became popular, sales of Nestle's semi-sweet chocolate
bar increased. Andrew Nestle and Ruth Wakefield struck a deal. Nestle
would print the Toll House Cookie recipe on its packaging and Ruth
Wakefield would have a lifetime supply of Nestle chocolate.
Cookies seem to be everyone's favorite dessert. In fact, they are the
number one dessert eaten in the US, some $3.6 billion per year. That's
a lot of cookies!(Nielsen survey of supermarket sales. In the 52 weeks
ending March 11, 1997).
The first historic record of cookies was their use as test cakes. A
small amount of cake batter was baked to test the oven temperature.
The name cookie is derived from the Dutch word koekje, meaning
"little cake." The English, Scotch, and Dutch immigrants
originally brought the first cookies to the United States. Our simple
butter cookies strongly resemble the English teacakes and the Scotch
Secrets of really good chocolate chip cookies
The recipe on the back of the Nestle Toll House Morsels [tm] bag makes
fine cookies, and if you were to follow it precisely, you couldn't go
too far wrong. However, based upon my own experience and that of
others, I advise a few minor modifications and refinements.
First, always use real butter. Don't let anyone convince you that
butter vs. margarine doesn't make any difference. It does.
Second, TRIPLE the amount of vanilla extract recommended. This means
to use a tablespoon where a teaspoon is specified. Also, always use
real vanilla extract and not "vanillin," which is bogus,
although cheaper, and sold next to the genuine article in many grocery
(Incidentally, vanilla is a wondrous and versatile substance. Click
here to find out everything you ever wanted to know about vanilla, and
some things you never suspected.)
Third, and this can make a big difference, don't just let the butter
sit out at room temperature to become soft. Instead, melt it, very
carefully, so that it doesn't burn (you can use a double boiler -- if
anyone out there still has one! -- or else a microwave oven that is
set very low and which you are watching like a hawk). A microwave can
burn the butter in a second if you turn your back at an inopportune
moment. (Use a Pyrex or other microwave-safe transparent container if
you do this, so you can watch the butter closely.) Melted butter,
because it is both warm and liquid, does a much better job of
dissolving and melting the sugar than a room-temperature creamed
butter can do, improving the consistency of the dough as you are
working with it, and also improving the texture of the cookies after
they are baked. My friend Lizabeth says that she gets much better
results using melted butter and superfine granulated sugar, and I
believe her; however, I have never had a problem with the texture of
cookies made with ordinary granulated sugar.
Also, if you're like me, you have often had a problem with your brown
sugar clumping together into giant bricks, which you are then banging
on the edge of the kitchen counter in order to break them up enough to
use the stuff; still, big lumps of brown sugar survive even into the
baked cookies. Well, if you take the big solid mass of brown sugar,
roughly the volume you desire, put it into the microwave with the
melting butter in the Pyrex cup, and let it melt on a very low setting
for a few minutes, you will find that the brown sugar will liquefy
very nicely. It will help it along if you stir the contents for a few
seconds after removing the cup from the microwave. It will then pour
smoothly into the mixing bowl. Let it cool briefly before adding the
eggs, so they don't poach before you can mix them into the other wet
Many correspondents have written to tell me that a slice of white
bread, placed into the sealed plastic bag with the bricklike mass of
brown sugar, will soften it within a day. My mother likes to use a
slice of apple. In either case, put it into the plastic bag with the
brown sugar and seal it up and check it again in 24 hours.
Fourth, add a little milk, maybe just a tablespoon or two, when you
are mixing the dough. This will make it less stiff and the cookies
will be less hard and crunchy when they are done. If you do this,
though, make sure the dough is nice and cold as you drop it onto the
cookie sheet, and also make sure the cookie sheet is room temperature
or cooler when you put the dough on it and put it into the oven. If
the dough melts around the edges before it starts to bake, sometimes
the edges will burn or get too brown.
Fifth, if you like, try leaving out part of the sugar. I find
sometimes that these cookies are easier to take if even 1/8 cup (two
tablespoons) of the sugar (white or brown) is omitted. Don't leave out
more than that though.
If you like, try adding a 10 ounce bag of Reese's peanut butter chips,
along with the chocolate chips. This makes a great cookie, but if you
do this it is probably best to omit the nuts. Or, try adding a bag of
butterscotch chips and substituting oatmeal for the nuts.
A lot of people have written to tell me that they love to add a
package of instant vanilla pudding mix. This does sound good and it
makes sense for a lot of reasons. I will try it sometime soon.
You can also experiment with untraditional mixes of white and brown
sugar until you achieve the version you like best. In addition,
although I have not yet tried this myself, I am told that it is
possible to substitute honey on a one-to-one basis for the brown
sugar, resulting in nice chewy cookies with a longer shelf life. I
recently received mail from someone who likes to use almond extract in
equal parts with vanilla, and who also tells me that the honey trick
didn't work for her. But she does recommend substituting bran for a
small part of the flour (I would make it not more than a tablespoon or
two) to make the cookies chewier. She sometimes adds cinnamon "to
taste," (I'd say, not more than a teaspoon total, and perhaps
less) and observes that stirring chopped-up Heath bars into the dough
can create a great cookie. (She didn't say this specifically, but I'd
advise against using the cinnamon and Heath bars in the same batch.)
Note that Toll House dough, without chips but with a fair amount of
cinnamon, might be a nice variation on the traditional American cookie
called the "snickerdoodle."
A correspondent in Canada urges that real maple syrup (emphasis on the
real; no Mrs. Butterworth's, please!) also makes a fine substitute for
the brown sugar. (I think I'd also advise against using Heath bars and
maple syrup together; maple syrup and cinnamon might be OK.)
Another correspondent says that adding a "dollop" of sour
cream improves the texture of the cookies, making them chewier and
increasing their shelf life. She swears that the sour cream can't be
tasted, and I'm sure that's true; sour cream assimilates well into
other foods, and these cookies have enough other strong flavors in
them that some sour cream shouldn't be noticeable. The $64K question,
of course, is: how much is a dollop? I'd say, take a soupspoon and
spoon out a heaping scoop of sour cream, maybe an inch or so above the
top of the bowl of the spoon at its highest point: that's a dollop.
YDMV (Your Dollop May Vary). Experiment and see what you like.
Whether or not you use Heath bars, cinnamon, maple syrup, or other
non-standard ingredients, the nuts are optional. Many people prefer
chocolate chip cookies without nuts. Alternatively, you can try adding
oatmeal (even if you don't add butterscotch chips) in the same volume
as the nuts called for by the recipe (but if you do this, be sure to
add more liquid). My friend Susan says that she doesn't bother adding
more liquid and her cookies turn out fine, but I prefer always to add
that extra tablespoon or two of milk. Also, if you add the Reese's
peanut butter morsels as discussed above, they melt and create some
additional moistness in the cookies.
The morsels don't have to be Nestle. However, in my experience Nestle
morsels do melt in a most satisfactory way during the baking process.
Ghirardelli and Guittard morsels are very good. I also like the
Hershey mini-morsels for this. The standard-size Hershey Morsels,
however, do not melt properly -- at least not in the
eight-to-ten-minute baking time of cookies -- and I do not recommend
them for use in cookies (although they are terrific in brownies, which
bake for a much longer period).
The morsels MUST, however, be semisweet (i.e. dark) chocolate. Milk
chocolate morsels, which are sold in similar bags to the undiscerning,
are massively too sweet to put into these cookies.
I do feel obligated to point out, for that matter,that both the
morsels and the baking itself can be optional. Those of us who make
chocolate chip cookies know how important it is to sample the dough
before baking! And I'd have to confess that sometimes the raw dough (I
prefer my raw dough chipless) is even better than the cookies.
If you do like to eat raw dough, though, be careful. Any foodstuff
containing raw eggs can harbor salmonella and/or other nasty little
bacteria. Don't use eggs that were cracked before you opened them.
Wash the eggshells in warm soapy water (and rinse them well) before
cracking the eggs and using them. Alternatively, use one of the
pasteurized egg substitutes. And remember that raw dough can be risky.
It is especially risky for anyone with a susceptibility to infections
or a compromised immune system. So be cautious.
But also have fun!